BELLARY DISTRICT - A PROFILE

PROFILE & POTENTIAL HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX LITERACY PER CAPITA INCOME  HEALTH  INFRASTRUCTURE  
 HOUSING RURAL DRINKING WATER SUPPLY WATERSHED AREA DEVELOPMENT PROJECT POWER ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION

1. PROFILE & POTENTIAL:

1.1 Bellary district takes its name from the word Balari which refers to goddess Durugamma as this goddess had marijested herself in the town. Some of the events in the great epic Ramayana are related to this historical place. It is said that Rama while searching for Sita met Sugreeva and Hanuman at a place which is very near to Hampi, the celebrated capital of Vijayanagara kingdom. The history speaks volumes about significant role it acquired during Satavahanas, Kadambas, Chalukyas of Kalyana, Kalachuryas, Sevunas and Hoysalas period. There upon the Vijayanagara rulers built the " City of Victory " on the bank of Tungabhadra river at Hampi in Hospet Taluk. This area which had witnessed the prosperity to its peak fell into political turmoil after the fall of Vijayanagara in 1565. This district was transferred to the erstwhile Mysore State on 1st October 1953 from Madras State. With the re-organisation of the districts during 1997, the number of taluks is reduced to 7. The Harapanahalli taluk has been transferred to Davanagere district.

1.2 Bellary district is spread from South-West to North – East and is situated on the eastern side of Karnataka State. The district is situated between 14o 30’ and 15o50’ north latitude and 75o 40’ and 77o 11’ east longitude. This district is bounded by Raichur district on the north by Dharwad district on the west, Chitradurga and Davangere districts on the south and Anantapur, Kurnool districts of Andhra Pradesh on east.It comes under the administrative control of Gulbarga division and development jurisdiction of H.K.D.B, Gulbarga.

1.3 As per 1991 census the population of the district stood at 16.53 lakhs. The geographical area is 8447 sq.km. It has 2 revenue sub divisions viz., Bellary Sub-Division and Hospet Sub-Division which have in all seven taluks. The Bellary Sub- Division has 3 taluks while there are five taluks in Hospet Sub-Division. There are 27 hoblies, two CMCs one Town Municipality, seven Town Panchayat 542 Revenue villages, 436 Thandas/habitations. The rural population constitute 70%. The density of population is 196 per sq.km which is much lower than the State average of 235 per sq.km. However the decimal growth rate for 1981-91 was 26.92 P.C which is higher than the State growth rate of 21.12 p.c. The SC/ST population constitute 28 p.c. of the total population. The sex-ratio was 965 which is slightly higher than the state average of 960. The normal rainfall is 639mm.

1.4 The major occupation of this district is agriculture and 75 p.c. total labour force is dependent on agriculture for its livelihood. The important crops grown are Cotton, Jowar, Groundnut, Paddy, Sunflower and Cereals. The net irrigated area is 37 p.c. to the net area sown. The pattern of land utilization in the district is as under (1997-98) :

Sl.No

Land classification

Area (in hectares)

Percentage total area

1.

Forest

97,017

11.9

2.

Land not available for cultivation 1,21,972

15.0

3.

Other un-cultivated land

33,875

4.2

4.

Fallow Land

62,982

7.7

5.

Area sown (net)

4,97,346

61.2

Total

8,13,192

100.00

1.5 The main source of irrigation is Tungabhadra Dam. The Canal network accounts for 64 % of irrigated area. The important rivers are Tungabhadra,Hagari and Chikkahagari. The western taluks of the district are dogged with scarcity conditions with the failure of rains during successive years. However during the current year and preceding year heavy rains have created havoc in the district leaving many in lurch.

 

1.6 Bellary district is rich in natural resources which need to be tapped to a great extent for overall development of the district. This district is endowed with rich mineral resources. It has both metallic and non-metallic minerals. The metallic minerals include Iron ore, Manganese Ore, Redoxide, Gold, Copper and Lead. The non-metallic minerals include Andalusite, Asbestos, Corundum, Chay, Delomite, Limestone, Limekankan, Moulding sand, quartz., soap stone, granite and red ochre. The metallic minerals are abundant is only three taluks viz., Sandur, Hospet and Bellary in the order of mining activity intensity. The annual production of Iron ore is anywhere between 2.75 to 4.5 million tonnes and manganese ore between 0.13 million tonnes to 0.3 million tonnes(1991).

1.7 Despite the availability of minerals in large quantities, this district is considered to be an industrially backward district. There are 23 units of large and medium scale industries in this district with an investment of Rs.447.76 crores employing around 9,222 persons At present it occupies ninth place in the state. However with the commissioning of Jindal Vijayanagar Steel Limited at Sandur the industry scenario of this district will be undergoing sea changes. It is understood that Mukund Steels and Kalyani Steels have plans to start industries in this area. The inflow of investment into these industries would be around Rs.30,000 Crores. The district will therefore come under heavy pressure on basic infrastructure such as power, communication, health, education and police stations which again invite heavy investment to create the needed infrastructure. Urgent action is needed to pool the resources under various sectors such as District Sector, State sector, Border Area Development, HKDB etc., and prepare a perspective plan to the emerging challenges. It has already drawn the attention of social scientists economists, administrators and other related functionaries to think over the possible positive and negative impact in this area.

 

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2. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX:

" Human development is not only growth in income, wealth or consumption but the expansion of human capabilities"

Human Development in Karnataka 1999

2.1 Bellary is one of the most backward districts of the State.In terms of the Human Development Index it is at 17 th place among the earlier configuration of 20 districts..Its HDI is 0.429 as compared to State HDI of 0.470.

Sl No

Characteristic

Reference Year

Bellary

Karnataka

1

Persons in million

1991

1.653

44.977

2.

Density per Sq.km.

1991

191

235

3.

Annual Compound Growth %

1981-91

2.41

1.93

4.

Females to thousand Males

1991

957.0

960.0

5.

Percent Urban

1991

29.9

30.9

6.

Percent Literate Male

1991

59.3

67.3

7.

Percent Literate Female

1991

32.5

44.3

8.

Percent SC

1991

19.3

16.4

9.

Percent ST

1991

8.8

4.3

10.

Mean Age at Marriage (Females)

1991

19.06

20.14

11.

Married Females/Thousand persons

1981

170.8

161.9

12.

CBR

1991

30.0

26.4

13.

IMR

1991

79.0

74.0

14.

CPR

1996-97

48.0

58.0

15.

CDR

1991

9.7

8.5

16.

District Income (Rs.Lakh)

1995-96

173044

4525230

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3. LITERACY:

" Education is the passport to accelerated economic growth. It is the key to building human capital and human capital is the vital ingredient in building a nation"

-Mahboob Ul Haq and Khadija Haq H Human Development in South Asia 1988.

3.1 The GOK spends 32% of SDP on education. In Bellary District 42% of Plan and non-plan expenditure is incurred towards salary component alone. Apart from this, expenditure is also incurred towards building up of infrastructure facilities in educational institutions. All this did not have the desired impact on the literacy attainments in the district causing serious concern. The education index 1991 stands at 0.516 (16th rank among erstwhile 20 districts) as against the state average of 0.596. This is a DPEP district.

3.2 Literacy in general plays a vital role in the overall development of any society. The literacy rate as per 1996 estimates was 51% in the district as compared to State literacy rate of 63%. The Total Literacy Campaign (TLC) had been launched in this district during 1993. 4.11 lakh illiterates were identified in the erstwhile Bellary district in the age group (9-35) years. The internal and external evaluation studies revealed 52% success rate and recommended for Post Literacy Campaign (PLC). The P.L.C.and Kannada Nadu Sakshara Nadu programmes have also come to an end and at present Adult Education centres are functioning. The continuing education programme project of Rs. 650.00 lakh has been submitted to the Govt. of India for approval.The pupil teacher ratio works out at 1:51 at Primary School level as against the existing norms of 1:40.In the context of massive industrialisation taking place in this district education sector assumes more significant role.The present infrastructure is just inadequate to meet the demand created by the new industries for technical, skilled and semi-skilled man power. While highly technical posts are filled up at open competition, preference is given to locals only in the lower cadre posts. These posts demand certain basic technical knowledge for which the present educational institutions needs to be increased and upgraded.

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4. HEALTH:

"Health is Wealth"

4.1 Healthy people make healthy nation. As per the health index 1991 Bellary district stands at 20th place among erstwhile 20 districts. It is 0.589 as against the state average of 0.618. The health index indicates health status based on life expectancy at birth. The IMR another health indicator show that it is 79/1000LB in the district as against the state average of 53/1000LB in 1997. The health infrastructure is rapidly expanding in the district through externally aided projects viz., R.C.H, I.P.P-IX and kfw. But it must be ensured the quality of health services at all levels is effective and infrastructure provided at high cost is functional. The EAPs under implementation in the district are as under:

1.      IPP IX : Project cost: Rs.450.00 lakh

Duration : 1994 to June 2001

2) R C H : Project cost: Rs.1505.00 lakh

Duration : 1998 to 2002

Sl. No.

Infrastructure

Bellary

Karnataka

1

Doctors per thousand persons

0.21

0.30

2.

Doctors per thousand persons (Govt.sector)

0.08

0.07

3.

Doctors per thousand persons(Pvt.Sector)

0.13

0.23

4.

Hospital beds per thousand persons

0.968

1.428

5.

Hospital beds per thousand persons(Govt)

0.606

0.586

6.

Hospital beds per thousand persons(Pvt.)

0.362

0.842

7.

Population per sub-centres

7,470

5,557

8.

Population per PHC

25506

21548

9.

Population per CHC

2,70,000

1,93,866

10.

Sq.km covered by sub-centre

39.1

23.7

11.

Sq.km.covered by PHC

164.8

131.7

12. Sq.km. covered by CHC

1412.1

826.6

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5. PER CAPITA INCOME:

5.1 Per capita income in the district is much lower than the per capita income in the state as evinced from the following figures :

Reference

Bellary

Karnataka

Current Prices (1995-96)

Rs 8544

Rs 9384

Constant Prices (1980-81)

Rs 2143

Rs 2551

5.2 Bellary district stands at 7 th place in Income Index among 20 erstwhile districts in the State but stands at 17 th place in HDI which clearly indicate that whatever income generated is not converted into welfare of the people.

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6.0 INFRASTRUCTURE:

6.1 ROADS:

" It Is not our wealth which builds our roads but roads which build our wealth" - John F. Kennedy

6.2 Roads indicate civilisation of a nation. They are means to prosperity, progress and well being of any country. Rural roads may be defined as those roads which connects villages. During 5th five year plan constructions of road was made a component of minimum needs programme. The working group on road for 9th five year plan has estimated that an amount of Rs.14040/- crores would be required for the construction of rural roads to cover 85% of village population. However Rs.10540 Crores has been proposed for the 9th plan.

6.3The road Infrastructure plays an important role in development of any area. Bellary has a very poor road Infrastructure. The natural calamity in the form of excessive rains during the current year have made the conditions worse. The road statistics are given below :

Sl.No

Item

Unit

Bellary dist

Karnataka State

1.

Road length

Kms

4887

134592

 

 

Per 100 sq.km

49.44

70.17

2.

National Highways

Kms

90

1997

 

 

Per 100 sq.km

0.91

1.04

3.

State Highways

Kms

471

11288

 

 

Per 100 sq.km

4.76

5.89

4.

Major Dist.Roads

Kms

1279

28169

 

 

Per 100 Sq.km

12.94

14.69

5.

Others

Kms

3047

41454

 

 

Per 100 sq.km

30.82

21.1

6.

Major Bridges

Nos

15

466

 

 

Per 1000 sq.km

1.52

2.43

7.

Railway Route

Kms

331

3079

 

 

Per sq.km

3.35

0.61

6.4 The massive industrialisation need better road transport which in turn demand for mutli-lane roads. Except N.H.No.13 which passes through the district for a distance of 90 Km; there is no adequate net work of national and State Highways. Recently N.H.No.63 has been sanctioned between Ankola and Goothi of Andhra Pradesh which passes through the district for 90 Km. NABARD assistance is sought for formation and maintenance of roads in this district.During the current year it is proposed to take up 79 road works at an estimated cost of Rs.494.00 lakh covering 201 Km. under "Rural road net work programme" All these works are tendered works and likely to be completed by March 2001.Apart from this each taluk has been allotted Rs.100.00 lakh to improve the road communication in the district under "P M G Y". The proposals are already with Govt. for approval.Under special package to Bellary district Rs.4375.00 lakh has been allotted to the district at the rate of Rs.625.00 lakh / taluk to take up 289 road works.

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7.Housing:

7.1 The Govt. of has been implementing various rural development programmes in order to improve the living conditions of rural folk. There is substantial increases in the outlay for these programmes in eighth and ninth five year plans. " Shelter for all" appears to be a distant dream because of its colossal dimensions with a huge backlog over the period and rapidly growing population.Shelter is an indication of an individual’s existence,dignity and security.It is estimated that housing shortage is more than 410 lakh units out of which shortage in rural areas is more than 265 lakh units.Besides 125 lakh rural houses need upgradation to make them livable.The National Housing Policy of 1994 clearly envisages the difference between rural and urban housing. The Government role is now to act as a facilitator rather than a provider.The strategy under this major economic sector is ensuring people’s participation in the construction of houses,encouragement to use low cost technology and cost effective material ,involvement of NGOs and Nirmithi Kendras in a big way and assuring land and technical rights by enactment of laws.As per survey conducted during 1994-95,there were 59607 siteless households and 45776 houseless households in the district.Several Housing schemes are addressed in the district by the GOI and GOK to combat this gigantic problem.But it appears a long way to go to provide 100 p.c. shelter.This district is quite fortunate to get included under several pilot study projects.The targets set under various housing schemes for the current year are detailed as under:

  1. Ashraya Housing Scheme
  1. Houses 4711
  2. Sites 728

2)Ambedkar Housing Scheme 932

3) Indira Awaas Yojana

a) Regular Houses 2122

b) Upgradation of Houses 1061

4) Credit cum Subsidy Scheme 342

5) Grameena Awaas 308

6) Houses under TSP for ST 75

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8. Rural Drinking Water Supply :

8.1Drinking water supply is a state subject and people in general believe that it is the responsibility of Government to provide it and no involvement of public is ever needed. In spite of increased outlay in the budget in the last one decade the overall situation particularly during the summer season is far from satisfactory. While fast depletion of ground water level and other related factors are identified for the present situation, the non involvement of people in O&M can not be ignored. Failure of large number of water supply schemes is attributed to poor operation and maintenance. It is therefore a new approach has been evolved to address this problem wherein it is proposed to institutionalise rural drinking water supply programmes through local self Govt., i.e. P.R.Is. 10% capital cost sharing and 100% sharing of O&M cost by users will ensure the financial credibility and substantiability of the water supply schemes. Bellary district is once again fortunate to be one of the three pilot districts selected for implementation of community participation rural water supply programme. The various schemes under implementation in this district apart from regular schemes are as under. It is proposed to provide sustainable safe drinking water to rural population in three stages.

1 Stage : 40 LPCD

2 Stage : 55 LPCD

3 Stage : 75 LPCD

8.2 Community Based Rural Water Supply Scheme:It is a Rs.4000.00 lakh programme with an objective of providing potable drinking water at a service level of 75 LPCD. The period of implementation is 3 years; in the first year the concentration will be on IEC activities and second and third years take care of actual implementation of schemes.The first installment of Rs.1122.00 lakh has already been released by the GOI.

1.      Millennium 2000: The GOK has sanctioned 7 PWSS at an estimated cost of Rs.56.00 lakh to augment the existing water supply and to provide 55 LPCD.This is a time bound programme all 7 schemes are expected to be completed by December 2000.

2.      Combined Water Supply Scheme under RGNDWM-Sub Mission Project: Under this project 6 PWSS have been taken up at an estimated cost of Rs.1255.00 lakh.The Govt. has so far released Rs.227.78 lakh.All these are tendered works.

3.      Additional allocation under 2215 ; 1999-2000: 19 PWSS at an estimated cost of Rs.69.60 lakh are taken up .So far the Govt. has released Rs. 40.00 lakh.

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 9.Water shed Area Development Project:

" If the village perishes India will perish too; it will be no more India . Her own machine in the world get lost. The revival of village is possible only when it is no more exploited". Mahatma Gandhi.

9.1 As per Dr:C.H.Hanumantha Rao committees report all area development programmes should be implemented on the basis of watershed approach. The common watershed guidelines envisage the bottom approach where by the user group/SHGs themselves would decide their work programme which is to be integrated at the District level. The decision making process is decentralized by authorising Gram Panchayat and people at the grassroot level to take decisions. The objectives of Area Development programmes in general are a} to mitigate adverse effects of desertification. and adverse climate conditions on crops, human and livestock population. The district was a DPAP Block till 1994-95 and subsequently covered under DDP. Watershed activities have been given a very high priority in the district. Projects for total area of 1,01,337 hectares have been approved by the Govt.of India under the Desert Development Programme,the Integrated Wasteland Development Programme the National Watershed Development Project for Rainfed Areas the River Valley Project Programme KAWAD,and . the Employment Assurance Scheme. The Zilla Panchayat is also the project implementation agency for watershed development over an area of approximately 15,000 hectares implemented by Karnataka Watershed Development Society and funded by The Overseas Development Agency UK.The details of the said programmes are given as under:

The watershed programme in the District are as under:

1) DDP 1995-96 29 Watersheds 14500 Hec. Rs.652.50 lakh

2)DDP 1998-99 40 Watersheds 18000 Hec. Rs.900.00 lakh

3) DDP 1999-00 23 Watersheds 11500 Hec. Rs.577.50 lakh

4) IWDP 1998-99 44 Watersheds 24540 Hec. Rs.981.60 lakh

5) KAWAD 1998-99 18 Watersheds 18826 Hec. Rs.405.00 lakh(aprox.)

Apart from these projects watershed projects are also taken up under EAS,NWDP and RVPP.

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10. POWER:

10.1At present there are three power generating stations in this region viz.,

o        The Hampi Power House

o        The Tungabhadra Right Band Power House

o        The Munirabad Power House

10.2 The installed capacity of the above power stations is 99 Megawatts.The Jindal Vijayanagara Steel Limited Power Generating Plant is expected to be commissioned shortly with an installed capacity of 260 MW out of which 130 MW is likely to be available for other users.The Government of Karnataka has approved setting-up of a Thermal Power Plant of 500 MW capacity near Kuduthini by the KPCL at an estimated cost of Rs.2,000 crores. This project construction is likely to be started during 2000-2001.

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11. ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION:

11.1 Use of electricity is a vital indicator of development of any area. Even as per this parameter Bellary is much behind the average districts of the State.The comparative figures are following :

Sl.No

Indicators

Bellary

Karnataka

1.

Electric connections per 1000 population

124

160

2.

Distribution Line (LT & HT Combined) per 1000 Sq.Km

1714

2120

3.

Per Capita Power Consumption in Industries (KWH 93-94)

130

90

4.

Per Capita Consumptions all uses (KWH 93-94

177

313

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